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India Union

India is a Union of twenty-eight States and six centrally administered Union Territories and one National Capital Territory.
The States are Andhra Pradesh, Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Goa, Gujarat, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, Jharkhand, Karnataka, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Orissa, Punjab, Rajasthan, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu, Tripura, Uttar Pradesh, Uttaranchal and West Bengal.

The centrally administered territories are Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Chandigarh, Daman & Diu, Dadra & Nagar Haveli, Lakshadweep and Pondicherry. Delhi has its own legislature and head of the government and is considered the National Capital Territory.

Map of IndiaDawn of Freedom
India's moment of glory finally arrived on the midnight of 15 August 1947. People delirious with joy flooded the streets to welcome the dawn of a new era. There was rejoicing everywhere. And within the Assembly Hall, Jawaharlal Nehru rose to make his famous "tryst with destiny" speech. By the early hours of morning, as the clouds sent a light drizzle to acknowledge the awakening, independent India was all set to transform a colonial society into a liberal polity.

A Constitution was drawn up in a matter of four years. It sought to assimilate different linguistic regions and religious communities of India into a cohesive Nation-State while, at the same time, conferring substantial autonomy upon the diverse states of the Indian Union. A concern for the citizens formed the basic principle for the guiding policies for governance laid down by the Constitution.

There was foresight in the visualization of the Indian Constitution, at every step. The founding fathers under the leadership of B. R. Ambedkar based governance of the country upon the free choice of its citizens. What is it that made them confident of the prudence and capabilities of the people from a society with modest social development? It was perhaps the strength of the oral tradition. The other was probably the existence of grass-root governance, a complex system having all the elements of a modern democracy. The Legislature, the Executive and the Judiciary functioning long before such systems were recognized by international thinkers.

their faith was not misplaced. Time and again, the people of India have shown their ability to discern: to be able to match immediate interests with the over-arching interests of the nation. The unfailing mechanism of democracy assured stability for the nation. At another level, the politicization of the popular classes generated political aspirations. These aspirations were reflected in various movements, which helped redefine priorities, or in the formation of new political organizations, which added other dimensions to political thought. and, to the people, it became a source of hope for a better future.

Fundamental Rights
India has a written constitution, a great achievement in itself, contains every detail needed to run a country efficiently and in a very clear-headed manner. What is a country that cannot guarantee its citizen's basic needs and requirements? Our constitution goes a step forward by also laying down some directive principles of state policy which may not be taken to the courts but surely act as guiding light. Even the limits to these rights (fundamental duties) are clearly defined so that they do not infringe on other people's rights.

The preamble of the constitution of India reads:

"We, the people of India, having solemnly resolved to constitute India into a Sovereign Socialist Secular Democratic Republic and to secure to all its citizens:

   1. Justice, social, economic and political

   2. Liberty of thought, expression, belief, faith and worship

   3. Equality of status and of opportunity; and to promote among them all

   4. Fraternity assuring the dignity of the individual and the unity and integrity of the Nation;………."

The preamble thus clearly emphasizes upon the importance of the fundamental rights that it guarantees to all its citizens. Every Indian citizen is thus guaranteed the freedom of speech, expression, belief, assembly and association, migration, and choice of occupation or trade. These rights also protect every Indian from discrimination on grounds of race, religion, creed or sex, and are enforceable in courts of law. The constitution also provides fro cultural and educational rights

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